CBD research - Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe?

2017: Cannabinoids and bone: friend or foe?

These data indicate that cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes responsible for ligand synthesis and breakdown play important roles in bone remodeling and in the pathogenesis of joint disease.

Authors:

Idris AI, Ralston SH.

Abstract:

The endocannabinoid system is recognized to play an important role in

regulating a variety of physiological processes, including appetite
control and energy balance, pain perception, and immune responses. The
endocannabinoid system has also recently been implicated in the
regulation of bone metabolism. Endogenously produced cannabinoids are
hydrophobic molecules derived from hydrolysis of membrane phospholipids.
These substances, along with plant-derived and synthetic cannabinoids,
interact with the type 1 (CB(1)) and 2 (CB(2)) cannabinoid receptors and
the GPR55 receptor to regulate cellular function through a variety of
signaling pathways. Endocannabinoids are produced in bone, but the
mechanisms that regulate their production are unclear. Skeletal
phenotyping of mice
with targeted inactivation of cannabinoid receptors and pharmacological
studies have shown that cannabinoids play a key role in the regulation
of bone metabolism. Mice
with CB(1) deficiency have high peak bone mass as a result of an
osteoclast defect but develop age-related osteoporosis as a result of
impaired bone formation and accumulation of bone marrow fat. Mice
with CB(2) deficiency have relatively normal peak bone mass but develop
age-related osteoporosis as a result of increased bone turnover with
uncoupling of bone resorption from bone formation. Mice
with GPR55 deficiency have increased bone mass as a result of a defect
in the resorptive activity of osteoclasts, but bone formation is
unaffected. Cannabinoids are also produced within synovial tissues, and
preclinical studies have shown that cannabinoid receptor ligands are
effective in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. These data
indicate that cannabinoid receptors and the enzymes responsible for
ligand synthesis and breakdown play important roles in bone remodeling
and in the pathogenesis of joint disease.

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